Anti-Black Racism Leadership Organizational Change, Justice and Leadership Social Planning and Equity Urban Planning

Using an Adaptive Leadership Framework to Advance Racial Equity in Planning

Image courtesy of Innovative Leadership Institute

This post is an excerpt from my upcoming paper on adaptive leadership and advancing racial equity in transit organizations.

There are fluid current discussions on the detrimental effects of structural and institutional racism exists at all levels in many Canadian public sector organizations. One example has been within transit organizations. Transit agencies are still managing and operating past decisions that have racism embedded in them where they have inherited past decisions, entrenched systems and attitudes. This is the part of the nervousness that Susan Gooden spoke about and something I mentioned in one of my previous posts.

Up until recently, the executive leadership and Board of Directors at the Toronto Transit Commission have been predominantly White males. The recent hire of Keisha Campbell as the agency’s first Chief Diversity Officer and Fenton Jagdeo as a TTC board member created strides in addressing anti-Black racism and anti-Indigenous racism from a leadership level to where it all starts. Leaders using an adaptive leadership framework would be the most effective in doing this.

Operationalizing organizational change and development as well as race are necessary components of the work towards racial equity. Using an adaptive leadership framework with a racial equity lens is critical to this work. Adaptive leadership is defined as Ronald Heifetz as an activity and not a set of personality characteristics. The concept of adaptive leadership has been used in non-profit agencies, health and education sectors but never in the public sector. The core activity for leadership is mobilizing groups and individuals to address adaptive challenges and helping create conditions that make adaptive work possible. It then becomes a commitment from the organization to ensure that all team members are treated equitably, feel a sense of belonging and have an adequate amount of resources – financial and human – for individuals to reach their full potential.

Technical challenges are those problems in the workplace or within the community that are clearly defined with known solutions that can be implemented through existing organizational challenges and are usually solved by technocrats and subject matter experts who revert to the status quo. They can be found in siloed professions like engineering and planning. People then look to the leader for a solution because they are the experts. Adaptive challenges on the other hand, like institutional and structural racism, is embedded yet complex, unidentifiable and entrenched into our systems and beliefs.

There are five leadership behavioural characteristics that encompass adaptive leadership according to Heifetz. They are:

  1. Leaders seeing the big picture by getting on the balcony.
  2. Leaders must identify adaptive challenges which are usually value laden that can stir up emotions of racial trauma through a Black person’s lived experiences.
  3. Leaders must regulate distress by creating a holding environment where they must balance White comfort from the status quo and from racialized people who need to be given the psychological safety to address racial trauma from their lived experiences.
  4. Maintaining disciplined attention to know that the work is tough.
  5. Leaders must give the work back to the people to figure out by giving them the autonomy and space to work. Moving to racial equity means again listening to the marginalized voices and providing them to space to work towards a solution.
  6. Leaders must protect the voices from below, which means the community organizations who are on the front lines listening to the marginalized voices – those who are frequent passengers who reverse commuting or trip chaining, for example.

Adopting an adaptive leadership style underscores that leadership is not a trait or characteristic but it is a constant interaction between leaders and followers through multiple dimensions. It is about horizontal and vertical levels of trust within and outside the organization. Executive leaders must be able to trust what their employees are saying whether it is moving up the ladder to those leadership positions that are seemingly out of reach, or those who are making the policy decisions that have negatively affected passengers, such as fare inspectors who racially profile Black passengers.

Adaptive leadership is about mobilization where followers learn to adapt and do the work that is necessary. Transit leadership that requires the need to get to racial equity must set up the holding environment to achieve to facilitate that adaptive change. That is why those leaders who use an adaptive style are the most effective when focused on inclusion and equity. They are focused on hearing from diverse voices and backgrounds in order to achieve equity.

Local government agencies like transit and planning are coming to a reckoning due to the urgency in address Anti-Black and anti-Indigenous racism. A more diverse workforce coupled with changing times calls for an upheaval. This also requires a change in the approach organizations operate as well as the policy decisions they make. The TTC is one organization that is stepping up to the plate is moving towards racial equity as they are in the midst of developing their Anti-Racism Strategy.

Whatever direction the TTC will be going once the Strategy is adopted, it is important that the CEO and executive leaders use a different approach to organizational change that will reverberate throughout the agency. Executive leaders adapting to focus on the behavioural and relational interventions instead of just the technical decisions will allow for better and more thoughtful decision making down the road. Adaptive leadership is effective in addressing complex situations like racial equity and will hold executive leaders accountable in doing so.

I am hopeful that the exercise the TTC is going through will provide an opportunity for not just for other transit agencies to follow, but planning agencies as well. The status quo is unacceptable. Being an adaptive leader is the way to go.

Anti-Black Racism Governance Housing Leadership Social Planning and Equity Urban Planning

2020 Year In Review. It was one of transition.

Every year, I would write a post reviewing what transpired over the year and plans to move forward. Last year it did not happen because of a major upheaval. This year, I decided to return to the long standing tradition.

This year it is a year of transition, while remaining consistent with others. The biggest accomplishment this year was the recommencement of graduate school in September to complete the Masters of Public Administration (MPA) program in Local Government at Western University. The last time I was in school was March 2016. Tragedy stuck where I lost my mother and took a lot of out of me emotionally. Now I return with greater confidence and purpose.

My research interests have slightly changed. I initially went into the program concentrating on regional transit governance. Those who have followed my blog, or those on social media, noticed my constant defense on the subject. I have been out of the transit profession for a while and the planning profession for three years and have been more focused on strategic and equitable leadership in local government. While governance remains a subject of interest from an organizational perspective, the majority of recent blog posts concentrated on racial and social equity.

This year’s international and national events surrounding addressing and eradicating racism after the deaths of innocent Black people with of Ahmaud Arbery, Breonna Taylor, George Floyd, and Regis Korchinski-Paquet was one factor. My post Enough is Enough from May highlighted my frustrations with systemic racism and my lived experiences navigating through White spaces in the professional world, and my own personal lived experiences from childhood to today.

Another factor was highlighted by the COVID pandemic that exacerbated the existing anti-Black racism and income gaps surrounding transit, public health and housing. Earlier this year, I contributed to an article to The Local Health Magazine where I spoke about my experience on the Jane 35, a Toronto transit bus route that traverses low-income neighbourhoods and where the hardest hit communities with COVID.

The plethora of Zoom webinars and meetings came with some positive results. One of them was meeting Carlton Eley, who provided me with some input on successfully maneuvering through the professional world focused on racial equity. I am forever grateful in him suggesting a book from Susan T Gooden titled Race and Social Equity: A Nervous Area of Government. I summarized the book in a post from the summer related to disrupting the status quo in the public sector. I will be incorporating some of her thoughts into my major research paper.

During this pandemic, I took up running as a form of physical activity in lieu of gyms being closed. As novice runner, it was more for exercise as well as visiting new neighbourhoods such as Oak Ridge and Birch Cliff in Scarborough and trails like the Finch West Hydro Corridor and the Beltline Trail.

But my social justice conscience went into high gear where I witnessed such disparities between the aforementioned Jane Street corridor and the Swansea neighbourhood as well as my experience seeing a makeshift encampment in Alexandra Park in Downtown Toronto. It was my last post on addressing the housing inequities in the City.

Finally, I started Urban Equity Consulting as a stop gap to find a way to work on contract developing solutions in strategic and technical urban planning and policy. But work has been scarce. It will be a placeholder to add racial and social equity to my practice once I complete graduate school and gain more experience in that area.

I predict the first half of 2021 will be more of the same, even with the discovery and distribution of vaccines among the general public. I will be graduating with a MPA degree in hand with a paper that hopes to carry me forward in my career, running a consistent 6:30 minute per kilometre pace, either continuing my practice with greater fervor or landing a full-time job – which the latter is preferred, and volunteering for causes with a strong racial equity focus.

I am looking forward to completing this transition in 2021 with greater purpose and success. Who’s ready to come for the ride? Drop me a note in the comments or follow me on my various social media channels.

Urban Planning

The Return of the Community Mall

Cover Image Credit: Real Estate, Arthur Hammond, 1973

This article was originally posted by me on July 20th, 2012, then reposted on The Urbanist on July 24th with my permission.

Yorkdale Shopping Centre was the first regional shopping centre in Canada built in 1964. It was a burgeoning mall with Simpson’s, Eaton’s and Dominion as its anchor stores. In the immediate area were various strip plazas including Lawrence Plaza which is within approximately 2 kilometres of the mall. The post war suburb was in full gear. The subway was to the southeast of the mall on Yonge Street and Eglinton Avenue. The definition of the mall centred around the car with the adjacent Highway 401 and with the Allen Expressway being built a few years later.

Spadina Expressway at Lawrence Avenue West, 1963, from the City of Toronto Archives, Fonds 217, Series 249, File 169 (via Historicist)

But within the immediate area, a variety of housing types were present – a mix of single family and medium density residential. Moreso, the public housing complexes of Lawrence Heights were a hop, skip and a jump away. Although regional in scope, many of the stores within Yorkdale, including Kresge, catered to the immediate community. Not only providing everyday shopping needs but as well as jobs.

Many of the older malls like Bramalea City Centre, Fairview Mall and Scarborough Town Centre were also designed in suburban locations but also were knowledgeable of the market, which also included nearby public housing complexes that were provided by the Province of Ontario. In “Real Estate“, the 2nd installment of the 1973 National Film Board of Canada series “The Corporation”, Sam Steinberg a Montreal shopping mall developer discusses the immediate market within the area of the soon-to-be-built Bramalea City Centre (fast forward to 12:50 mark). It is interesting to note the discussions with multiple developers and the mall would “act as a catalyst for growth” before development begins.

Also you will note in the film that the developer also was building a high-rise complex nearby and the mall also had plans for a transportation centre for municipal transit. Of course given the cost of developing land in those days was much cheaper and developers could do such grand schemes. In the end, the suburban shopping center catered to all sorts of land uses nearby, had a balanced transportation network and a mix of amenities that catered to the immediate community.

Flip the page 20 years later, big box retailers and power centres have become the predominant shopping experience with auto owners and new suburban and exurban development. Were these types of facilities catalysts for growth or succumbed to the sprawl that exists in our cities and communities today? Expansive free parking combined with limited transit mobility options and accessibility for those who did not own a car. No connection to the community.

As Andrew Mayer, a Senior Planner from Butler County noted:

Through the 90′s, malls began adding other uses such as movie theatres, full-fledged restaurants, amusement rides, nightclubs, and a host of other activities.

What happened in the United States surely existed in Canada as well. Shopping malls like West Edmonton Mall, Mall of America, the Mills Group of shopping centres (Vaughan Mills) and to a smaller extent Woodbine Centre, started a trend of theme shopping malls built with indoor amusement activities such as swimming, bowling and other family filled fun. Drive the kids to mall instead of the local park or a day at Canada’s Wonderland or Six Flags. In the case of West Edmonton Mall, it sucked the life out of downtown Edmonton and still continues to do so.

At the same time, strip plazas were a dying breed. Major tenants were losing business to these big box stores. Tenants were opening and closing shops as fast as one could change their underwear. Discount and end of the line merchandisers were renting out vacant spaces to make a quick buck and then leave. This continues to be the trend as we speak today.

Shopping malls were an experience. Big Box retailers are of convenience.

Are we seeing a trend back to the community?

Frances Bula, a freelance journalist noted in a 2011 Globe and Mail article:

Due to the shortage of available land, the restrictions that many Canadian cities put on commercial space, and even the stringent demands of provincial highways ministries, mall developers are going to have to be creative and persistent.

Creative and persistent they are.

Bramalea City Centre, as do many other regional malls, have such amenities such as a community police station while continuing to have grocery stores on site.  Yorkdale currently has a Community Arts Centre which was built in coordination with the City of Toronto. Unfortunately this is conspicuously located in the parking garage. Another example is London, Ontario’s Citi Plaza has converted a formerly closed Bay location into a new public library, as seen by the photo below.

At the same time, older shopping malls like Meadowlark Shopping Centre and Capilano Mall are redefining themselves as lifestyle centres where these malls are catering to the aging demographic housing medical facilities and hosting elderly friendly events.

The Shops at Don Mills and Santa Monica Place have reestablished themselves from former indoor malls and transformed into walkable “communities” of their own with high-end stores and restaurants making them destinations to go to beyond shopping. Along those same lines, Downtown Mississauga has a Master Plan in the works looking to transform its formerly desolate City Centre area, with Square One Shopping Centre continuing to be its focal point, into a new destination for residents of Mississauga. Already present are the Living Arts Centre, condos and now Sheridan College campus. Plans are to incorporate light rail transit and a cultural market. Proposed plans for revamped shopping centres are also happening in Vancouver’s Oakridge Mall (Ivanhoe Cambridge) and Mill Woods Town Centre (Rio-Can) in Edmonton.

In Bula’s article of July 22nd, Burnaby’s deputy planning director, Lou Pelletier stated that

The opportunities for development of new regional malls have substantially changed as urban communities have continued to grow and develop. Established communities like Burnaby have been increasingly focused on developing more urban, mixed-use town centres to support improved transit services, higher amenity urban living and more walkable, complete and compact communities.”

To add to Pelletier’s comment, consultant David Moss noted:

Scarborough Town Centre (Monarch and Tridel) have added about 8 to 10 buildings over the last 15 years .. say 2,000 units or so .. Sherway Gardens has added about 3 buildings, say 700 units (Great Gulf), Square One area has added about 5,000 units in 15 buildings .. (Daniels and others), Promenade has added 2,000 units .. some are true ‘on property’ ventures, some are adjacent as part of mixed use areas .. some of this was to liquidate surplus real estate (ie surface parking areas) .. that is only needed for a few key weekends per year .. while these centres should be glued to their communities, at times I think they are glued to their ‘markets’ rather than their communities.

Going forward, are these developers attempting to “control” their own communities as the malls add new higher end stores. With the talk of Nordstrom entering the Canadian market with a potential opening at  Sherway Gardens, it’s all making complete sense now.

And as such, the mall has come back to being part of the community once again – only because growth policies and land values have forced them to do so.